Document Type

Article

Original Publication Date

2016

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Inorganic Chemistry

Volume

55

Issue

21

First Page

11396

Last Page

11407

DOI of Original Publication

10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01925

Comments

Originally published at http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01925.

Date of Submission

January 2017

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) plays significant roles in the virus life cycle and has been targeted by compounds that could lead to its denaturation or block its interaction with viral RNA. Herein, we describe the interactions of platinum(II) and gold(III) complexes with NCp7 and how the reactivity/affinity of potential inhibitors can be modulated by judicious choice of ligands. The interactions of [MC1(N3)](n+) (M = Pt2+ (n = 1) and Au3+ (n = 2); N-3 = tridentate chelate ligands: bis(2-pyridylmethyl)methylamine (Mebpma, L-1) and bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (bpma, L-2) with the C-terminal zinc finger of NCp7 (ZF2) were investigated by electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Mass spectra from the incubation of [MC1(Mebpma)](n+) complexes (PtL1 and AuL1) with ZF2 indicated that they were more reactive than the previously studied diethylenetriamine-containing analogues [MC1(dien)](n+). The initial product of reaction of PtL1 with ZF2 results in loss of all ligands and release of zinc to give the platinated apopeptide {PtF} (F = apopeptide). This is in contrast to the incubation with [PtC1(dien)](+), in which {Pt(dien)}-peptide adducts are observed. Incubation of the Au3+ complex AuL1 with ZF2 gave AuxFn+ species (x = 1, 2, 4, F = apopeptide) again with loss of all ligands. Furthermore, the formally substitution-inert analogues [Pt(N-3)L](2+) (L = 4-methylpyridine (4-pic), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (dmap), and 9-ethylguanine (9-EtGua)) were prepared to examine stacking interactions with N-acetyltryptophan (N-AcTrp), the Trp-containing ZF2, and the "full" two-finger NCp7 itself using fluorescence quenching titration. Use of bpma and Mebpma gave slightly higher affinity than analogous [Pt(dien)L)](2+) complexes. The dmap-containing complexes (PtL(1)a and PtL(2)a) had the greatest association constants (K-a) for N-AcTrp and ZF2 peptide. The complex PtL(1)a had the highest Ka when compared with other known Pt2+ analogues: [Pt(dien)(9-EtGua)](2+) < [Pt(bpma)(9-EtGua)](2+) < [Pt(dien)(dmap)](2+) < PtL(2)a < PtL(1)a. A Ka value of ca. 40.6 +/- 1.0 X 10(3)M(-1) was obtained for the full NCp7 peptide with PtL(1)a. In addition, the mass spectrum of the interaction between ZF2 and PtL(1)a confirms formation of a 1:1 PtL(1)a/ZF2 adduct. The reactivity of selected complexes with sulfur-containing amino acid N-acetylcysteine (N-AcCys) was also investigated by Pt-195 and H-1 NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The precursor compounds [PtCl(N-3)](+) PtL1 and PtL2 reacted readily, whereas their [Pt(N-3)L](2+) analogues PtL(1)a and PtL(2)a were inert to substitution.

Rights

© 2016 American Chemical Society

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VCU Chemistry Publications

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