Defense Date

2004

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Chemistry

First Advisor

Dr. M. Samy El-Shall

Abstract

This research is divided into three major parts. In part I, the critical supersaturations required for the homogeneous nucleation of 2,2,2-trifluorothanol (TFE) vapor have been measured over a temperature range (266-296 K) using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber (DCC). The measured supersaturations are in agreement with the predictions of both the classical and the scaled theory of nucleation. Moreover, the condensation of supersaturated TFE vapor on laser-vaporized magnesium nanoparticles has been studied under different experimental conditions, such as the supersaturation, the pressure and the electric field. In part II, the laser vaporization controlled condensation (LVCC) technique was used to prepare Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles in the vapor phase using designed targets of compressed Au and Ag micron-sized powder mixtures of selected composition. The results showed that the optical properties of these nanoparticles could be tuned depending on the alloy composition and the laser wavelength. Different intermetallic nanoparticles (FeAl and NiAl) from the vapor phase has also been prepared, using the same approach.In this work, the fraction of the charged particles generated during the laser vaporization process was used to prepare a new class of nanoparticle assemblies in the LVCC chamber under the influence of an electric field. The results showed that the electric field required to induce the formation of these nanoassemblies is material and field dependent. By coupling the LVCC chamber with the differential mobility analyzer, size-selected nanoparticles have been prepared in the vapor phase. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. In part III, new methods were developed to prepare nanoparticle-polymer composites from the vapor phase. In the first method, the LVCC method was used to prepare a carbonaceous cross-linked resin, with different nanoparticles (Ni, Pt and FeAl) embedded inside. In the second method, free radical-thermally initiated polymerization was used to polymerize a monomer vapor of styrene on the surfaces of activated Ni nanoparticles.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

June 2008

Included in

Chemistry Commons

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