Defense Date

2010

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Gary Tepper

Abstract

Wide bandgap semiconductors are being widely investigated because they have the potential to satisfy the stringent material requirements of high resolution, room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers. In particular, Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe, x~0.1) and Thallium Bromide (TlBr), due to their combination of high resistivity, high atomic number and good electron mobility, have became very promising candidates for use in X- and gamma-ray detectors operating at room temperature. In this study, carrier trapping times were measured in CZT and TlBr as a function of temperature and material quality. Carrier lifetimes and tellurium inclusion densities were measured in detector-grade Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals grown by the High Pressure Bridgman method and Modified Bridgman method. Excess carriers were produced in the material using a pulsed YAG laser with a 1064nm wavelength and 7ns pulse width. Infrared microscopy was used to measure the tellurium defect densities in CZT crystals. The electronic decay was optically measured at room temperature. Spatial mapping of lifetimes and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. A significant and strong correlation was found between the volume fraction of tellurium inclusions and the carrier trapping time. Carrier trapping times and tellurium inclusions were measured in CZT in the temperature range from 300K to 110K and the results were analyzed using a theoretical trapping model. Spatial mapping of carrier trapping times and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. While a strong correlation between trapping time and defect density of tellurium inclusions was observed, there was no significant change in the trap energy. Carrier trapping times were measured in detector grade thallium bromide (TlBr) and compared with the results for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) in a temperature range from 300K to 110K. The experimental data was analyzed using a trapping model. In CZT, because the majority carrier concentration is close to the intrinsic carrier concentration, the trapping time increases exponentially as the temperature decreases below about 160K. While, in TlBr, the majority carrier concentration is many orders of magnitude greater than the intrinsic carrier concentration and the trapping time followed a temperature dependence over the range of temperatures studied. The results of the model suggest that a moderately deep compensation center, located approximately 200 meV from the middle of the bandgap, could be used to significantly increase the room temperature trapping time in TlBr. The results of this model demonstrate that the room temperature trapping time in TlBr can, in principle, approach 0.1ms through the introduction of a moderately deep compensation level but without decreasing the overall trap concentration. This strategy is not possible in CZT, because the band gap is too small to use a moderately deep compensation level while still maintaining high material resistivity. Carrier trapping times were measured in three polycrystalline TlBr samples produced by melting commercial TlBr beads in a sealed quartz ampoule for two hours at three different temperatures near the melting point. The trapping time decreased with increasing melting temperature, presumably due to the thermal generation of a trap state.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

July 2010

Included in

Engineering Commons

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