Defense Date

2011

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Department

Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Umesh Desai

Abstract

The discovery of heparin in 1916 resulted in a huge impact on the practice of medicine. Heparin has played a major role in alleviating thrombotic disorders and has also exhibited effects on almost every major system in the human body. Over the past few decades, more and more heparin-protein interactions have come to light. It is implicated to modulate several important processes such as cell growth and differentiation, inflammatory response, viral infection mechanism etc. More interesting is the observation that these interactions are considerably specific with regard to oligosaccharide sequences which have specific spatially oriented sulfate groups modulating the responses. However, due to the complex nature of these interactions and lack of effective computational capabilities, predicting these interactions is challenging.An alternative approach to modulating heparin-protein interactions would be to screen a library of molecules having a diverse distribution of the negative charges and screen them against various proteins of interest to obtain valuable information about the binding/selectivity requirements. This approach would not only yield molecules with potential clinical viability, but may also yield molecules that help decipher native mechanisms regulating proteins, which is called chemical biology in today's terms. Since the difficulties associated with carbohydrate synthesis are well known, well characterized highly sulfated oligosaccharide library screening is considered nearly impossible. Thus, the main aim of this project was to develop an effective method for the synthesis of a library of variably sulfated, non-carbohydrate molecules. The library would contain varying in the number of sulfate groups, offer positional variants of the sulfate groups and provide molecules of varying length so as to afford structural diversity necessary to mimic the heparin sequences. Previous attempts in our laboratory to synthesize such a library encountered two major problems: 1) dimerization of polyphenols due to difficult protection / deprotection strategies and 2) ineffective purification of highly water soluble sulfated molecules. To overcome the problem of protection-deprotection, “click” chemistry has been used in this work for dimerization of polyphenols without any protective groups. To overcome the second problem, a non-aqueous method of purification of highly sulfated molecules was developed, which is the first such report.As a proof of concept, a small library of 14 sulfated monomers and dimers and 8 non-sulfated dimers was generated. The protocol for dimerization of free polyphenolic molecules in has been established to use “click” chemistry for coupling the monomers without the need to protect the free hydroxyl groups. Thus by circumventing the inefficient protection-deprotection protocol, there is a tremendous improvement in yields, ease of purification and characterization and greater productivity allowing the synthesis of more number of molecules in a relatively shorter span of time. By masking the charge of the sulfate using an appropriate counter-ion and owing to the inherent lipophilicity of the aromatic scaffold, these highly charged molecules could be purified using normal phase silica gel chromatography. This method reduced the purification time from previous over 48 hours with the aqueous method to approximately 15 minutes. Further, this purification protocol may be possibly automated so as to truly generate a large library of variably sulfated non-carbohydrate molecules for the first time. Screening this library of 22 sulfated and unsulfated molecules against three enzymes of the coagulation cascade – factors IIa, Xa and XIa – has provided a wealth of information with regard to engineering specificity for recognition of these enzymes. The screening led to the identification of CS3 which inhibited factor XIa with an IC 50 of ~ 5 μM and other enzymes with an IC 50 of > 500 μM as a lead candidate with high selectivity. The success of this strategy bodes well for understanding the heparin-protein interactions at a molecular level. Previous attempts in our laboratory to synthesize such a library encountered two major problems: 1) dimerization of polyphenols due to difficult protection / deprotection strategies and 2) ineffective purification of highly water soluble sulfated molecules. To overcome the problem of protection-deprotection, “click” chemistry has been used in this work for dimerization of polyphenols without any protective groups. To overcome the second problem, a non-aqueous method of purification of highly sulfated molecules was developed, which is the first such report.As a proof of concept, a small library of 14 sulfated monomers and dimers and 8 non-sulfated dimers was generated. The protocol for dimerization of free polyphenolic molecules in has been established to use “click” chemistry for coupling the monomers without the need to protect the free hydroxyl groups. Thus by circumventing the inefficient protection-deprotection protocol, there is a tremendous improvement in yields, ease of purification and characterization and greater productivity allowing the synthesis of more number of molecules in a relatively shorter span of time. By masking the charge of the sulfate using an appropriate counter-ion and owing to the inherent lipophilicity of the aromatic scaffold, these highly charged molecules could be purified using normal phase silica gel chromatography. This method reduced the purification time from previous over 48 hours with the aqueous method to approximately 15 minutes. Further, this purification protocol may be possibly automated so as to truly generate a large library of variably sulfated non-carbohydrate molecules for the first time. Screening this library of 22 sulfated and unsulfated molecules against three enzymes of the coagulation cascade – factors IIa, Xa and XIa – has provided a wealth of information with regard to engineering specificity for recognition of these enzymes. The screening led to the identification of CS3 which inhibited factor XIa with an IC 50 of ~ 5 ?M and other enzymes with an IC 50 of > 500 ?M as a lead candidate with high selectivity. The success of this strategy bodes well for understanding the heparin-protein interactions at a molecular level.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

July 2011

Share

COinS