Defense Date

2011

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Engineering

First Advisor

Kenneth Wynne

Abstract

This thesis focuses on solution antimicrobial effectiveness for copolyoxetanes with quaternary ammonium and PEG-like side chains. Ring opening copolymerization of 3-((4-bromobutoxy)methyl)-3-methyloxetane (BBOx) and 3-((2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy) methyl)-3-methyloxetane (ME2Ox) yielded random copolymers with 14-100 (m) mole% BBOx designated P[(BBOx-m)(ME2Ox)]. Reaction of P[(BBOx-m)(ME2Ox)] with dodecyl dimethylamine gave the corresponding quaternary P[(C12-m)(ME2Ox)] polycation salts, designated C12-m. Mole ratios and molecular weights were obtained from 1H-NMR and end group analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed Tg’s between 69 and -34 °C. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed MIC decreasing with increasing C12 mole% reaching a minimum between C12-43 and C12-60. C12-43 had the lowest MIC for all strains. At 5× MIC (challenge:108 cfu/ml), C12 43 kills ≥ 99% of the tested strains within 1 hr. C12-m copolyoxetane cytotoxicity toward human red blood cells, HFF (Human Foreskin Fibroblast) and HDF (Human Dermal Fibroblast) was low, indicating good prospects for biocompatibility. Cx-m copolyoxetane antimicrobial efficacy, hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity were further explored by changing quaternary alkyl chain length. Copolyoxetanes are represented as Cx-50, where 50 is the mole percent quaternary repeat units and ‘x’ is quaternary alkyl chain length (2 to 16 carbons). Reaction of P[(BBOx-m)(ME2Ox)] with a series of tertiary amines yielded the desired quaternary ammonium segment. DSC studies showed Tg’s between -40 °C and -60 °C and melting endotherms for C14-50 and C16-50. A systematic dependence of alkyl chain length on MIC was found with C8-50 being the most effective antimicrobial. Kill kinetics for C8-50 (5× MIC, challenge: 108 cfu/ml) effected >99% kill in 1 hour for S. aureus (7 log reduction). C8-50 efficacy on biomass and cell viability of P. aeruginosa biofilms was investigated. Crystal violet (CV) staining assays demonstrate that C8-50 had no effect on adhesion of already established P. aeruginosa biofilms, but reduced biofilm formation by killing cells prior to attachment. For anti-adhesion assays, noticeable reduction in biofilm mass occurred at concentrations greater than 2× MIC. Viability studies show a substantial log reduction of 2.1 at MIC. The low cytotoxicity of Cx-m copolyoxetanes coupled with low MICs and favorable biofilm results indicate good prospects for therapeutic applications.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

12-19-2011

Included in

Engineering Commons

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