Defense Date

2015

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science

Department

Mathematical Sciences

First Advisor

Daniel Cranston

Abstract

The famous Four Color Theorem states that any planar graph can be properly colored using at most four colors. However, if we want to properly color the square of a planar graph (or alternatively, color the graph using distinct colors on vertices at distance up to two from each other), we will always require at least \Delta + 1 colors, where \Delta is the maximum degree in the graph. For all \Delta, Wegner constructed planar graphs (even without 3-cycles) that require about \frac{3}{2} \Delta colors for such a coloring.

To prove a stronger upper bound, we consider only planar graphs that contain no 4-cycles and no 5-cycles (but which may contain 3-cycles). Zhu, Lu, Wang, and Chen showed that for a graph G in this class with \Delta \ge 9, we can color G^2 using no more than \Delta + 5 colors. In this thesis we improve this result, showing that for a planar graph G with maximum degree \Delta \ge 32 having no 4-cycles and no 5-cycles, at most \Delta + 3 colors are needed to properly color G^2. Our approach uses the discharging method, and the result extends to list-coloring and other related coloring concepts as well.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

5-6-2015

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