Defense Date

2016

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science

Department

Biology

First Advisor

Dr. Deborah Lebman

Second Advisor

Dr. Dennis Ohman

Third Advisor

Dr. John Ryan

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Stewart

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients are not easily cleared due to the conversion from a nonmucoid to a mucoid phenotype. Alginate is an acetylated exopolysaccharide produced by mucoid PA that is responsible for increased resistance to antibiotics, host phagocytic killing, and propagating biofilm formation. Understanding the interaction between PA and host cells is critical to understanding chronic infection and inflammation in CF. In order to investigate this, we used A549 pulmonary epithelial cells and murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) to examine host response to nonmucoid versus mucoid PA infection. Adhesion assays in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells revealed that mucoid PA mutants adhere poorly compared to their nonmucoid counterparts. Similarly, phagocytosis assays using MH-S infected with PA revealed that mucoid PA are increasingly resistant to phagocytosis. The alginate acetylation mutant FRD1175 is more susceptible to phagocytic killing than alginate+ FRD1. Adherence and phagocytosis of mucoid FRD1 was increased by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 50:1 to 500:1. Furthermore, confocal microscopy revealed that mucoid PA are inherently less inflammatory than nonmucoid strains in both A549 and MH-S. Increasing the MOI of mucoid FRD1 from 50:1 to 500:1 significantly increased caspase-1 activation in MH-S but not in A549, revealing that intensity of inflammatory signaling by epithelial cells is likely independent of increased adherence. FRD1175 infection in both A549 and MH-S revealed that alginate acetylation plays a significant role in reducing inflammasome activation. Western analysis revealed that PA does not actively induce TGF-β secretion by A549 epithelial cells. Similarly, NF-κB expression was reduced in both A549 and MH-S when infected with mucoid FRD strains, but not PA from the PAO background, suggesting FRD strains have accumulated additional mutations facilitating escape of inflammation. MH-S treated with cytochalasin D to block phagocytosis were still able to activate NF-κB signaling, suggesting NF-κB activation is adherence but not phagocytosis dependent. These data increase our understanding of the various mechanisms in which mucoid PA is able to evade host immune defenses and provides insight into potential therapies to treat PA infections.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

8-15-2016

Available for download on Saturday, August 14, 2021

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