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Current methods to detect cardiac ischemia rely on biomarkers such as troponin. Elevated levels of troponin are observed hours after the cardiac event. There is an unmet need for rapid diagnostic tests for cardiac ischemia, which utilizes recently discovered biomarkers. A VCU patented assay for cardiac ischemia employs the use of chemiluminescence to detect metabolic byproducts of xanthine oxidase activity. These byproducts are detectable minutes after the cardiac event. Early diagnosis of and response to cardiac events is beneficial for clinical decision-making; therefore, a point-of-care device within the emergency health setting is sought. The CLSE 203 project team designed and fabricated a multi-layered lab-on-chip to not only house this rapid assay to be later implemented into a point-of-care device, but also convert the assay from a multi-step to a one-step process. The topmost layer contains the necessary reagents and blood plasma and introduces them into the assay. The middle layer passively mixes the reagents and the plasma together via a micromixing channel and introduces them into an Archimedean clockwise spiral. At the end of this spiral, the combined reagents sink to the bottom layer into a complimentary counterclockwise spiral and ultimately exit through a side of the chip. The two spirals form the area of detection, a complete circle. Metabolic xanthine oxidase byproducts are then detected and measured.

Publication Date



ischemia, biomarker, chemiluminescence, lab-on-chip


Chemical Engineering | Engineering

Faculty Advisor/Mentor

Dr. Nastassja Lewinski

VCU Capstone Design Expo Posters


© The Author(s)

Date of Submission

May 2018

Rapid, Diagnostic Test for Cardiac Ischemia