1 00:00:00,000 --> 00:00:02,670 All right. Our next participant, 2 00:00:02,670 --> 00:00:05,925 is Chastyn Smith from integrative life sciences. 3 00:00:05,925 --> 00:00:08,580 The title of the talk is "Helping solve whodunnit: 4 00:00:08,580 --> 00:00:10,380 determining the number of contributors in 5 00:00:10,380 --> 00:00:13,600 a sample earlier in the forensic workflow." 6 00:00:13,970 --> 00:00:16,425 We've all probably seen 7 00:00:16,425 --> 00:00:18,510 a crime mystery show at some point, 8 00:00:18,510 --> 00:00:21,015 whether it was Scooby Doo or true crime. 9 00:00:21,015 --> 00:00:22,695 So let's play "whodunnit." 10 00:00:22,695 --> 00:00:24,330 We arrive at a crime scene 11 00:00:24,330 --> 00:00:25,890 and we see this puddle of blood. 12 00:00:25,890 --> 00:00:27,375 We take a sample of the blood 13 00:00:27,375 --> 00:00:29,280 and we send it to the lab for testing. 14 00:00:29,280 --> 00:00:32,505 In the lab, the sample is taken through the old workflow, 15 00:00:32,505 --> 00:00:35,190 only reveal at the end that it contains DNA 16 00:00:35,190 --> 00:00:38,010 from maybe one, maybe two people. 17 00:00:38,010 --> 00:00:39,840 We can't be quite sure because 18 00:00:39,840 --> 00:00:43,295 all the DNA is not crossing the level of detection. 19 00:00:43,295 --> 00:00:44,990 Now we could reanalyze 20 00:00:44,990 --> 00:00:47,255 this sample and hope for better results. 21 00:00:47,255 --> 00:00:49,295 But this process already took weeks, 22 00:00:49,295 --> 00:00:51,155 and at most it could take months. 23 00:00:51,155 --> 00:00:54,275 This is a problem in the forensic DNA community. 24 00:00:54,275 --> 00:00:56,270 Samples that contain DNA from 25 00:00:56,270 --> 00:00:58,655 multiple individuals, called mixtures, 26 00:00:58,655 --> 00:01:01,895 produce complex results like the picture on top, 27 00:01:01,895 --> 00:01:05,240 and are not revealed until the end of the workflow, 28 00:01:05,240 --> 00:01:07,310 at which point it's too late to do things 29 00:01:07,310 --> 00:01:09,875 differently in order to get better results. 30 00:01:09,875 --> 00:01:12,530 Now, a solution would be to 31 00:01:12,530 --> 00:01:13,700 detect that a sample is a 32 00:01:13,700 --> 00:01:15,800 mixture earlier in the workflow 33 00:01:15,800 --> 00:01:18,050 so that we could then know to 34 00:01:18,050 --> 00:01:21,050 modify how we process that sample, 35 00:01:21,050 --> 00:01:24,590 that we can ensure we get better results later on, 36 00:01:24,590 --> 00:01:26,645 like the sample on the bottom. 37 00:01:26,645 --> 00:01:29,765 Well, this is what my research is. 38 00:01:29,765 --> 00:01:33,170 I am developing a tool that can be used earlier in 39 00:01:33,170 --> 00:01:34,790 the forensic workflow that will 40 00:01:34,790 --> 00:01:37,520 determine if a sample is a mixture. 41 00:01:37,520 --> 00:01:40,340 The way this tool works is we look at 42 00:01:40,340 --> 00:01:41,360 two different regions of 43 00:01:41,360 --> 00:01:43,969 the DNA that differ between individuals. 44 00:01:43,969 --> 00:01:45,785 The more differences that are seen, 45 00:01:45,785 --> 00:01:47,660 the more likely that sample contains 46 00:01:47,660 --> 00:01:49,415 DNA from multiple people, 47 00:01:49,415 --> 00:01:52,235 and the tool predicts it to be a mixture. 48 00:01:52,235 --> 00:01:54,740 And the good thing about this tool is that it is 49 00:01:54,740 --> 00:01:57,455 combined with a step that's already in the workflow, 50 00:01:57,455 --> 00:02:00,420 so it doesn't add an increase in time. 51 00:02:00,850 --> 00:02:03,125 So far, 52 00:02:03,125 --> 00:02:05,210 in proof of concept testing, 53 00:02:05,210 --> 00:02:07,669 this tool has been able to accurately 54 00:02:07,669 --> 00:02:11,015 identify 90% of the mixtures tested. 55 00:02:11,015 --> 00:02:13,835 Further research will be done to one, 56 00:02:13,835 --> 00:02:15,665 increase the accuracy of this tool, 57 00:02:15,665 --> 00:02:17,630 and to develop more features. 58 00:02:17,630 --> 00:02:20,210 For example, we not only want this tool to 59 00:02:20,210 --> 00:02:23,180 tell you that a sample contains DNA from multiple people, 60 00:02:23,180 --> 00:02:25,595 but exactly how many people. 61 00:02:25,595 --> 00:02:27,590 The most immediate impact of 62 00:02:27,590 --> 00:02:29,150 this research will be seen in 63 00:02:29,150 --> 00:02:32,795 DNA labs as it will allow for more samples to be tested, 64 00:02:32,795 --> 00:02:35,210 which could be the determining factor in a case. 65 00:02:35,210 --> 00:02:37,325 But looking at the bigger picture, 66 00:02:37,325 --> 00:02:39,170 this research is significant to 67 00:02:39,170 --> 00:02:41,225 society because it is bettering 68 00:02:41,225 --> 00:02:44,270 the DNA analysis process by allowing 69 00:02:44,270 --> 00:02:46,430 stronger results be obtained 70 00:02:46,430 --> 00:02:49,295 the first time a sample is analyzed. 71 00:02:49,295 --> 00:02:52,129 This will allow cases to be solved faster, 72 00:02:52,129 --> 00:02:55,340 the majority of which are committed by repeat offenders. 73 00:02:55,340 --> 00:02:57,110 So if we can stop a 74 00:02:57,110 --> 00:02:59,690 re-offender before they offend again, 75 00:02:59,690 --> 00:03:01,340 this will ultimately lead to 76 00:03:01,340 --> 00:03:04,530 a decrease in crime. Thank you.