Juhstin M. Brown and Clement S. Augustus
Objective/Aims: During dental visits, patients spend the majority of their time with their dental hygienist. At these recall appointments the patient’s face-to-face time with the dentist may be short. At this part of the appointment the dentist may diagnose the need for restorative treatment for the patient. Part of the hygienist’s responsibility is to explain treatment options for teeth with restorative needs. The purpose of this review of literature is to provide both options for restoration of dentition to a functional/aesthetic state.
Methods: Studies pertaining to the topic were searched using PubMed database. Keywords used in the search were amalgam, composite, restoration, replace, repair, and contraindications.
Results: Of the references received multiple outcomes has been recorded. Research shows that when it comes to composite restorations generally doctors will replace them in order to get an accurate color shade to match the patient’s teeth. In regards to posterior teeth there are multiple risk factors for repairing amalgam such as endodontic involvement and denture care.
Conclusion: Due to the positive results of both repairing and replacing restorations, it ultimately comes down to a patient to patient basis. Practitioners must also take into consideration risk factors that the patient may present with, cost association/coverage, and patient preference. It is responsibility of the dental hygienist to inform patients of these variables regarding their restorative treatments so they may make an informed decision.
Cassandra N. Cooper
Problem: There is a greater need in today’s world for better oral care across all populations. In developing countries, the tradition of oil pulling has provided an affordable and accessible alternative to antimicrobial rinse agents. Western society has taken note of this and oil pulling has emerged as the latest oral hygiene fad.
Methods: This review of literature used the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar to identify relevant research articles. Search terms included oil pulling, coconut oil, sesame seed oil, oil swishing, oral health, periodontitis, gingivitis, and bacterial adherence. The studies reviewed used previously validated data collection methods to report their results. Articles included in this review had to be published after 2015.
Major findings: Many studies have shown oil pulling to be comparable to chlorhexidine in antimicrobial properties and even reduce plaque adherence.
Conclusions: Oil pulling shows to be an additional method for improving oral hygiene by reducing bacterial counts, plaque adherence, malodor and aid in enhancing overall gingival health. Although there have been promising outcomes there needs to be larger scale, long term studies to definitively prove the benefits of oil pulling in the oral cavity. Additionally, these studies need to include subjects from varied geographic locations and cultures worldwide.
Regina M. Dixon and Samantha Chavez
The focus of this review of literature is on orofacial anatomy and their association with the longevity of wind instrument use. The importance of how playing wind instruments creates a disadvantage for the oral cavity and therapeutic approaches to decrease the adverse effects. Using the university’s library database and PubMed, the authors performed a thorough search on the literature of our topic. Specific key terms such as wind instrumentalists, oral health, orofacial anatomy, and therapy were used to conduct our search. The searched was limited to the English language and within five years of publications. The findings acknowledged pathologically infectious microorganisms can proliferate in the mouthpiece of wind instruments, leading to diseases. The major orofacial anatomy affected by consistent use of musical instruments include salivary glands, the temporomandibular joint, and the dentition. Excessive pressure was a key factor in inflammation and damage to the hard and soft orofacial tissues. Furthermore, the reviewed literature revealed embouchure is vital to understanding a musicians oral health necessities. Developments in dentistry have been able to establish treatment in many cases for prosthodontic care and treatment plans for others wind instrumentalists so they have a chance to continue their passion with comfort and health.
Taylor Rue and Emily Liebe
Objective/Aims: This review of literature was designed to analyze the effects of artificial sweeteners in chewing gum in the oral cavity. The intent was to recognize which formulations of artificial sweeteners in chewing gum lead to beneficial outcomes in the oral cavity and which formulations lead to harmful effects.
Methods: The review of literature analyzed the conclusions of primary and secondary resources accumulated from PubMed. Multiple scholarly studies were filtered based upon meta-analysis, cross-sectional, and cohort studies. The following key terms were used: artificial sweetener, chewing gum, plaque, saliva, microbes, and oral health. A summative report was created based upon the relevant findings. Articles selected were published after 2014.
Results: The studies collected were assessed using a measure of saliva and plaque pH, salivary function, caries occurrence, remineralization, and oral flora. Xylitol made the most beneficial impact on the oral cavity. Research indicates artificial sweeteners have shown an immense advantage over conventional sugar in chewing gum, and its resulting effects on hard tissue.
Conclusion: The relationship between artificial sweeteners and oral health supports different advantageous outcomes in the oral cavity. In conclusion, although studies using artificial sweeteners can show benefits to the oral cavity, the dose of artificial sweetener required to yield these results are often not found in chewing gum.
Gabrielle R. Salvatore and Kendall A. Connerley
Objectives/aim: The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects on the different pathological changes in the oral cavity due to puberty, in both males and females. Hormonal changes caused by menstrual cycles, ovulation, the use contraceptives, and increased testosterone and estrogen levels.
Methods: This topic will be analyzed by thoroughly reviewing research on articles that relate to the oral health of individuals specifically between the ages of 12-18 years old.
Results: Research presents significant evidence that supports changes occurring in the oral cavity during an individual’s stage of puberty. These stages include ovulation, pre-menstruation, menstruation and males transitioning through puberty. During the puberty stage adolescents are more prone to have increased gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), gingival index, and bleeding on probing while research has shown no significant findings on plaque indexes or probing depths. Changes occurring during the menstrual cycle tend to influence the periodontium and induce inflammatory conditions as well. While the periodontium and inflammatory cytokines play a major role in the effects during puberty, changes in diet during this phase can increase the risk of developing caries as well.
Conclusion: When adolescents are transitioning into adulthood, there are multiple changes their body goes through. During the literature review, many changes happen during puberty significantly affecting the oral cavity were discovered. These changes have both positive and negative effects. Variations in hormone levels and diet greatly influence the health of the oral cavity and can be a deciding factor on development or severity of oral disease.
Christina Tulloch and Denise Thieleman
Objective: Conventional cigarettes have shown severe toxicity on immune cells and wound healing in the periodontium, but little is known about the comparative effects of vaping or electronic cigarettes. In a substantial shift away from conventional cigarettes, vaping and e-cigarette sales have increased nearly 600% since 2017. If current conventional cigarette users are to transition to a less detrimental alternative, the evidence must demonstrate if electronic nicotine delivery systems can be deemed safer than conventional options.
Methods: By compiling data from the PubMed database, the most recent perspectives on new smoking methods and effects of usage on periodontal tissues were examined. The authors input various combinations of MeSH terms “electronic nicotine delivery system,” “periodontal,” “gingival” and “electronic cigarette.” Search results were filtered to only include studies within the last seven years, included all countries, and selective preference was given to primary research sources.
Results: Electronic nicotine delivery systems have been shown to contribute to several pathophysiological effects including oxidative and carbonyl stress, inflammatory dysfunction, presence of apoptotic necrotic epithelial cells, and impaired fibroblastic activity. Evidence-based research has shown the use of electronic nicotine devices lead to changes in cellular activity which manifests as a strong risk factor for periodontal disease and fibrosis of the oral submucosa. The primary outcome measure of the health of the periodontium was indicated mainly by bleeding on probing, attachment loss and presence of inflammatory cells present.
Conclusion: Electronic nicotine delivery systems are still being studied and studies are difficult to complete due to participants partaking in multiple forms of smoking. Although individuals transitioning from conventional to newer electronic nicotine delivery devices perceive making a healthy switch, scientific evidence indicates the risk of periodontal damage and disease are significant.
Katlin R. Cannon, Melissa Stowe, and Brooke Ryan
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common developmental neurological disorder affecting about 2-3 children out of 1,000. CP is the result of infant brain damage or abnormal development resulting in impaired muscle control, coordination, tone, reflex, posture, and balance. These patients are unable to control motor movements of their muscles of mastication and facial expression, causing excessive drooling, clenching, bruxism, and other oral health-related issues. This lack of motor control affects their ability to swallow and often limits these patients to a liquid diet. This can lead to vitamin deficiencies and result in further developmental problems. As an example, a deficiency in vitamin D may lead to osteoporosis, which manifests in the oral cavity as periodontal disease.
Even into adulthood, these individuals are often reliant on the care of others. It becomes the caregiver’s responsibility to ensure the individual with cerebral palsy is receiving consistent and effective oral hygiene, and to monitor the oral tissues for signs of disease or injury. The researchers reviewed primary and secondary literature published after 2014 on the subjects of cerebral palsy, general health considerations, and oral care. The aim of this investigation focuses on unique issues faced by patients with cerebral palsy, and how to effectively educate caregivers on risks and proper techniques for providing oral hygiene to these individuals.
Megan L. Dean, Rebecca Fields, and Hannah Fritz
Objective: To provide an analysis of the association between the longevity of breastfeeding and development of ECC. Determine the optimal time frame in which mothers should cease breastfeeding to reduce ECC development. Methods: Dr. Brickhouse, PubMed, Google Scholar and other scholarly databases were utilized to find current scientific evidence on the effects of breast milk on ECC. Relevant articles were summarized to write a review of literature. 16 articles published from 2015 to the present date were reviewed and cited. Results: From the studies, there is strong evidence to support breastfeeding beyond 12 months of age increases the prevalence of ECC. Furthermore, increased frequency and duration of breastfeeding leads to higher incidence of ECC. Conclusion: Findings indicate dental health care providers should recommend either ceasing breastfeeding at 12 months of age or provide ECC prevention education to caregivers. Further research is required to minimize data discrepancies between US and international countries.
Sydney C. Smith, Maegan Simms, and Barbara Brown
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, or SLE, is a chronic autoimmune disease which significantly affects various organs of the body and the oral cavity. According to various studies, SLE can cause an increased risk of periodontitis, fungal infections, and dental caries within the oral cavity. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition mediated by an infectious etiology which affects the supporting tissues of the periodontium and alveolar bone. With SLE being an inflammatory condition as well, recent studies have emerged hypothesizing the possible association between SLE and periodontitis. Other effects on the oral cavity such as fungal infections including lichen planus and angular cheilitis are occasionally seen in patients with lupus. Furthermore, SLE has been shown to increase the prevalence of dental caries due to decreased salivary flow and pH, and subsequent changes in the oral flora. On a systemic level, internal inflammation of SLE could lead to several other problems within the body and certain medications patients take for SLE treatment can cause cutaneous lesions. Therefore, as clinicians, it is imperative to adequately review patient medical histories as well as perform intraoral and extraoral examinations in order to fully understand the possible contraindications between dental treatment and SLE. The purpose of this literature review is to inform clinicians on the oral and systemic aspects of SLE and how evidence-based decision making may impact dental treatment planning in order to provide patients with the best quality of care.
Mary X. Tran, Leira N. Jimenez, and Linda K. Blackburn
The Aloe vera plant is a succulent known for its rich content in vitamins and minerals, thus gaining popularity over the years in healthcare products. With advancements in alternative medicine, it has been recently found useful in dentistry due to properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial actions that contribute to wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine and discover how Aloe vera can be used as an alternative therapy in the dental field. The PubMed, Google Scholar and Dentistry & Oral Sciences (DOSS) databases were utilized to find current scientific evidence on the effects of Aloe vera. Relevant articles were summarized to write a review of findings. In this study, 21 articles published from 2015 to present were reviewed. From the studies, there is strong evidence to support that Aloe vera exhibits beneficial effects in prevention of carious lesions, non-surgical scaling and root planing in patients with chronic periodontitis, and oral wounds. Furthermore, it is cost effective and easily accessible. This review’s findings indicate that dental health care providers could recommend Aloe vera as a preventive and an alternative treatment option to improve patients’ oral health status.