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Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), a decellularized porcine extracellular matrix (ECM), is used clinically in periodontal tissue regeneration. Amelogenin, EMD’s principal component, spontaneously assembles into nanospheres in vivo, forming an ECM complex that releases proteolytically cleaved peptides. However, the role of amelogenin or amelogenin peptides in mediating osteoblast response to EMD is not clear. Human MG63 osteoblast-like cells or normal human osteoblasts were treated with recombinant human amelogenin or a 5 kDa tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) isolated from EMD and the effect on osteogenesis, local factor production, and apoptosis assessed. Treated MG63 cells increased alkaline phosphatase specific activity and levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, prostaglandin E2, and active/latent TGF-β1, an effect sensitive to the effector and concentration. Primary osteoblasts exhibited similar, but less robust, effects. TRAP-rich 5 kDa peptides yielded more mineralization than rhAmelogenin in osteoblasts in vitro. Both amelogenin and 5 kDa peptides protected MG63s from chelerythrine-induced apoptosis. The data suggest that the 5 kDa TRAP-rich sequence is an active amelogenin peptide that regulates osteoblast differentiation and local factor production and prevents osteoblast apoptosis.
Copyright © 2013 Rene Olivares-Navarrete et al.
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VCU Biomedical Engineering Publications