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Discriminating acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) is often challenging. This systematic review examines studies using biomarkers or images to distinguish ALI/ARDS from CPE.
Three investigators independently identified studies designed to distinguish ALI/ARDS from CPE in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database until July 3, 2017.
Of 475 titles and abstracts screened, 38 full texts were selected for review, and we finally included 24 studies in this systematic review: 21 prospective observational studies, two retrospective observational studies, and one retrospective combined with prospective study. These studies compared various biomarkers to differentiate subjects with ALI/ARDS and in those with CPE, and 13 calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). The most commonly studied biomarker (four studies) was brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the discriminatory ability ranged from AUC 0.67–0.87 but the timing of measurement varied. Other potential biomarkers or tools have been reported, but only as single studies.
There were no identified biomarkers or tools with high-quality evidence for differentiating ALI/ARDS from CPE. Combining clinical criteria with validated biomarkers may improve the predictive accuracy.
© The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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