Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Health Related Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Janet H. Watts


Many handwriting programs are currently used in schools, but little research has been conducted on their effectiveness. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group pretest posttest design examined effects of the Handwriting Without Tears program with special and general education students enrolled in inclusion classrooms. Two experimental classes received instruction with the HWT method while two comparison classes received instruction using traditional methods. Handwriting performance was measured using the Minnesota Handwriting Assessment. One-way analysis of covariance tested the differences between rates of handwriting improvement for experimental and comparison groups while controlling for pretest scores. Students in the experimental classes showed no statistically significant improvement in overall handwriting skill compared to the classes receiving traditional handwriting instruction. However, the HWT program was found to be effective in improving the areas of size (p = .008) and spacing (p = .014) within a 10-week period, regardless of educational status or gender.


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Date of Submission