Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Dr. Jennifer K. Stewart

Second Advisor

Dr. Krista J. Fischer-Stenger


Effects of norepinephrine (NE) on macrophage cytokine release are complex because the cells have both α2 and β2 adrenergic receptors, which mediate opposing actions. Furthermore, β2-adrenergic agonists are reported to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on interleukin-6 (IL-6). This study was designed to clarify the autocrine role of macrophage-derived NE on IL-6 production in activated peritoneal macrophages. Effects of NE on IL-6 production in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell-line also were investigated. Treatment of activated peritoneal macrophages with endotoxin, the α2-adrenergic antagonists yohimbine or RS79948 revealed that the α2-adrenergic receptor mediates a stimulatory autocrine action of catecholamines on IL-6 production. When peritoneal macrophages were treated with the β2 antagonist ICI-118,551 (ICI), there was both inhibition and stimulation of IL-6. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with high and low concentrations of NE and various concentrations of ICI provided evidence that the concentration of NE determines whether the β2-adrenergic receptor mediates stimulation or inhibition of IL-6 production.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

June 2008

Included in

Biology Commons