Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health


Epidemiology & Community Health

First Advisor

Emmanuel Anum MBChB MPH PHD


Abstract Title: The Relationship between Perceived Personal Risk of getting Prostate cancer and Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening Yeatoe G. McIntosh, MPH Candidate Advisor: Emmanuel Anum, MBChB, MPH, PHD Preceptor: Emmanuel Anum, MBChB, MPH, PHD Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2008 28,660 deaths would be attributed to prostate cancer, projecting it to be the leading cause of cancer deaths in U.S. men. Despite the potential threat this cancer presents to men and the potential for improved disease outcomes from early detection, guidelines for screening for prostate cancer are varied, and disparities in screening prevalence exist. In addition, disparities in knowledge about prostate cancer screening and misconceptions about the disease seem widespread. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived personal risk of getting prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening with the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Methods: Data were collected from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Overall, 1,815 men ages 35 and above were included in the sample after exclusion of men ages 18-34. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between perceived personal risk and prostate cancer screening with PSA test, while testing for interaction and further adjusting for possible confounders. A reduced model, in which variables with non-significant Wald chi-squared statistic had been excluded, was compared to the full model to access the change in parameter estimates. Using the model-based approach, we compared models with interaction terms to the one without interaction terms using the likelihood ratio test. Parameter estimates from the best fitting model were reported using the design-based method. SAS version 9.1 statistical software was used for analyses. Results: Among men ages 35-49, those who perceived their risk as high, were significantly less likely to screen than those who perceived their risk as low (OR: 0.20 95% CI: 0.05-0.78). Within ages 50-64 and 65 and above, there were no significant differences between perceived risk levels and PSA testing. Men, who did receive healthcare provider recommendation for screening, were more likely to obtain prostate cancer (PSA) screening than men who did not receive such recommendation (OR: 92.56 95% CI 36.56, 234.36). Conclusions: The relationship between perceived personal risk of getting prostate cancer and PSA screening is modified by age. As men aged, their odds of screening increased. The most significant predictor of PSA screening was health provider recommendation. PSA screening showed no association with either race or household income.


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Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

August 2008

Included in

Epidemiology Commons