Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Public Health


Epidemiology & Community Health

First Advisor

Richard Sterling


Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vaccination and HBV infection status of adults and to evaluate the trend in self reported vaccination and seroprevalence for Hepatitis B for this population. Additionally, this study sought to assess the association between vaccination rates, seroprevalence (HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs), demographic (age, gender, location of birth, race/ethnicity), and socioeconomic (annual household income, education level, insurance coverage and access to care, marital status) characteristics. Methods: Eight years, 1999-2006, of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were used. NHANES participants aged 20-59 years who contributed data via the household interview and laboratory component were eligible for this study. Two sources of vaccination status were available. The vaccination status was identified through self-report. Those who answered yes to “less than three doses” and “at least three doses” were classified as vaccinated. Vaccination status was also verified through serologic markers. All analyses were weighted to consider the complex weighting scheme and adjusted to the 2000 US census population. Vaccination rates were calculated for both low and high risk populations. 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of each estimate were also calculated. The association between potential predictors of vaccination (demographic variables, socioeconomic status, high risk, and health care access and utilization variables) and vaccination status was assessed using bivariate analysis. We used logistic regression model to obtain odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for the association between predictor variables and vaccination status after adjusting for all potential confounding factors. Results: Vaccinated adults were more likely to be female, younger (20-29), Non-Hispanic white, married, born in the United States, have some education beyond high school, have a household income greater than $20000, health insurance coverage, a source of usual medical care, report a health status of good or higher, be non-smokers, and have no history of alcohol abuse. High risk adults comprised about 16% of adults who had received at least one dose of the Hepatitis B vaccine. Unvaccinated adults were more likely to be male, over the age of 40, Non-Hispanic white, born in the United States, married, have some education beyond high school, have a household income greater than $20,000, live in a household of 6 or fewer people, have health insurance coverage, and a source of usual care. When comparing the self reported vaccination status with serologic status, almost half of the adults who reported receiving all three doses of the vaccine tested negative for immunity. For all adults the prevalence increased from 23.4% to 39.1%. Compared to adults in 1999-2000, adults were twice as likely to report vaccination in 2005-2006 (OR=2.1 95% CI [1.77, 2.49]). Conclusions: Although, hepatitis B vaccination rates are rising, only 32% of high risk adults are vaccinated. The rise in vaccination rates in young adults is mostly related to childhood immunization strategies and not strategies aimed at adults. Older males, those with less than high school education, without health insurance coverage and a source of usual care were least likely to be vaccinated. More targeted interventions are needed to educate and vaccinate the adult population and to create a means for identifying those at risk and those already vaccinated.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

May 2009

Included in

Epidemiology Commons