Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Masahiro Sakagami


This dissertation project aimed to demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of two anorectic gut secreted peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and oxyntomodulin (OXM) enabled food intake suppression and reduced body weight gain in rats via their systemic absorption from the lung and interaction with the brain. After PYY and OXM were administered to the lungs at varying doses, food intake and body weight gain were monitored in freely feeding rats. Significant 30-35 % food intake suppression was achieved for 4-6 h following pulmonary administration of endogenously active PYY3-36 and OXM1-37 at 0.80 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, when administered daily for 7 days, these peptides enabled significant reduction of body weight gain by 39.4 and 62.3 %, respectively. However, neither of their active fragment peptides, PYY13-36, OXM30-37 and NAc-OXM30-37 was effective at doses equimolar to the effective doses of PYY3-36 and OXM1-37. For PYY3-36, its pulmonary administration caused c-Fos activation in the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus (ARC) only, which was concurrent to reduced orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), suggesting its appetite suppression was mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast, OXM1-37 caused c-Fos activation in both the hypothalamus ARC and brainstem AP, which implied the involvement of the CNS control and vagal stimulation for this peptide. As it was clear that these effects resulted from their lung absorption and increased plasma levels, the pharmacokinetics of one of the peptides, PYY3-36 was characterized following pulmonary administration. The plasma profiles were dose-proportional and kinetically, non “flip-flop”, yielding the highest PYY3-36 concentrations (Cmax) of 75.0±9.3 and 726.3±69.0 ng/ml at 0.08 and 0.80 mg/kg, respectively, at 10 min. According to a new kinetic model developed in this project, the percent absolute bioavailability (% F) was estimated to be 12-14 %, as derived from the lung absorption (ka) and non-absorptive loss rate constant (knal) of 0.03 min-1 and 0.17-0.22 min-1, respectively. Overall, this research provided the first proof-of-concept for effective appetite suppression with pulmonary delivery of anorectic gut secreted peptides via systemic absorption.


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