Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Thomas Waldrop


Abstract FACTORS AFFECTING GINGIVAL EXCESS, ALTERED PASSIVE ERUPTION AND RECESSION IN THE MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR AND PREMOLAR SITES By William F Bohlen, D.M.D. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Dentistry at Virginia Commonwealth University. Virginia Commonwealth University, 2010 Major Director: Thomas Waldrop, DDS, MS Program director, Department of Periodontics, Virginia Commonwealth University AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting gingival excess, altered passive eruption and recession. METHODS: 100 subjects were examined clinically and models of their mandible were fabricated. Demographic, periodontal and cast measurements were recorded for each subject. Measurements were made on casts with digital calipers and included clinical crown length, clinical crown width, papillary height and gingival width. The W:L ratio was calculated and the proportion compared to the maxillary arch ideal of .80. Values greater than .80 were used as a cutoff point for defining gingival excess. Measures of periodontal health were also examined and included probing depths, clinical attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Other patient variables examined were history of orthodontics, presence of occlusal and incisal wear, presence of parafunctional habits, subjective appearance of gummy smile and biotype. RESULTS: The mean W:L ratio was found to be 79.6 %. Tooth type (p<0.001), gender (p<0.0237) and biotype (p<0.0081) were found to significantly contribute to a W:L ratio >.80. There was a significant correlation between the subjective appearance of gingival excess and the W:L ratio, regardless of biotype. There was no association between recession and gingival excess. CONCLUSION: Subjectively, 17% of the study subjects had gingival excess. When the author (WB) made the determination that gingival excess was present, there was a significant increase in the W:L ratio for all teeth, regardless of biotype versus teeth without the presence of gingival excess. Proposed ideal W:L ratios for the mandibular anterior teeth from the second premolar to central incisor are listed in Table 11.


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Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

August 2010