Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Special Education

First Advisor

Maha Al-Hendawi


Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement in children at-risk. Seventy-seven children, ages five to 11 years, were reassessed two years after an initial study. Their teachers completed the Temperament Assessment Battery for Children (TABC), the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), and reported on the children's academic achievement. The results for the concurrent relationships showed significant relationships between the children's temperament and their school adjustment; negative emotionality significantly correlated with and predicted school adjustment. Children's temperament was also found to have a significant relationship with academic achievement; persistence and activity level had significant correlations with academic achievement. Persistence, however, was the only predictor of academic achievement. In contrast, the longitudinal relationship between the children's temperament and their educational outcomes in terms of both school adjustment and academic achievement showed no significance. The concurrent relationships were found to be consistent with previous research; whereas the longitudinal relationships were found to vary from previous research. Implications for practice and considerations for future research directions are discussed.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

October 2010