Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Michael Fine


The carp Cyprinus carpio has a two-chambered swimbladder and excellent hearing. I explored the hypothesis that the anterior chamber, which connects to Weberian ossicles, is adapted for hearing by testing both chambers for material properties. I also determined displacement and auditory responses to mechanical strikes. Wall stress is higher in the posterior, strain in the anterior and modulus lower in the anterior chamber. Strikes increase pressure followed by a variable rebound that rapidly decays. Displacement and sound amplitude increase with hammer force, and amplitude is similar in both chambers for within chamber strikes but lower across chambers. Normalized for equivalent displacement, the anterior chamber produces a more intense sound. Stiffness and damping are greater for the anterior chamber, but sound spectra are similar. More intense sound production per unit of movement, greater damping and higher stiffness for the anterior chamber should all contribute to high-frequency auditory sensitivity.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

August 2011

Included in

Biology Commons