Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Everett Jr Worthington


People agree that forgiveness is a virtue in essentially all countries. However, different cultures have different ideas about how willing one should forgive and under what circumstances. Although the study occurred in the USA, I recruited both foreign-extraction and Virginia born-and-raised female college students (N=102) to participate a six-hour REACH forgiveness intervention, promoting their forgiveness through psychoeducational groups. In my thesis, I investigated whether students of foreign extraction and Virginia-born students would respond similarly to the intervention. I operationalized culture in two ways—by country and by individual self-reported self-construal. I measured forgiveness using two measures—decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. I found that the six-hour REACH forgiveness intervention enhanced participants’ forgiveness regardless of their culture background. But foreign students who were functioning in a US university did not respond differently than Virginia-born students. The similar findings also applied to participants who perceived themselves differently in Collectivism and Individualism.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

February 2013