Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Steven Lindauer


As esthetic improvement continues to be a primary goal of orthodontic patients and practitioners, it is important to understand the soft tissue movements that occur during the transition from rest to smile. Advances in technology allow capture of 3-dimesional photographs. The purpose of this study was to quantify the soft tissue changes that occur upon smiling and to compare changes between males and females using 3-dimensional photography. Fifty-four participants had resting and smiling photographs taken with the 3dMDface camera system. The two images were registered on stable facial surfaces, landmarks were placed, and measurements were recorded. Three-dimensional changes occurred in the following regions of the face in both males and females: eyes, ears, nose and lips. Intercommissure width of the lips was shown to increase more in females than males, but males showed increased mobility in landmarks at the base of the nose.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

May 2013

Included in

Dentistry Commons