Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Everett Worthington


Since research on forgiveness has flourished over the past three decades, multiple interventions have been developed to aid individuals in this arduous process. Two interventions in particular have been most-widely studied with diverse groups: Enright’s process model (Enright & Fitzgibbons, 2000) and Worthington’s REACH Forgiveness model (2006). Thus far, these forgiveness interventions have been led by trained professionals in an in-person group. In-person interventions pose issues of cost and attendance. In the current study, I adapted Worthington’s Christian-adapted REACH Forgiveness intervention into a self-directed workbook for Christians who have experienced an offense within a religious community. Participants (N = 52) voluntarily completed the workbook for partial course credit, taking an average of 6.66 hours of time, and assessments at three time points. I found a significant treatment condition x time interaction, Wilks’ ë = .31, F(6,31) = 11.57, p < .001, partial ç² = .69, which indicates that the effect of time depended upon the treatment condition to which participants were assigned. In addition, the current study produced a larger effect size comparable to benchmarks of previous in-person REACH Forgiveness interventions (d = 1.63), and fell within the upper limit of the standard of change. The current findings encourage further analysis of this self-directed intervention which is cost-effective, easily disseminated, and found effective in this initial study.


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Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

July 2013