Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Public Policy & Administration

First Advisor

Blue Wooldridge


High performance organizations desire to provide services in an effective and efficient manner with positive outcomes; therefore measures of performance and cost can be utilized to gauge such success. Through comparative research and analysis of local governments that have and do not have collective bargaining for law enforcement, findings and results can determine if there is any correlation between employee workforce classification (in collective or non-collective bargaining workplaces), high performance traits, costs and high performance return on costs (HPRC) for law enforcement. A HPRC composite measure was developed and utilized to compare and contrast all of the local governments to determine relationships between performance and costs. Based upon the research, the following findings were discovered for the null hypothesis which compared two forms of collective bargaining - arbitration and mediation - separately to non-collective bargaining localities: 1) Correlation between workforce classification and high performance attributes – mediation (negative – perform at a lower performance level); 2) Correlation between workforce classification and law enforcement costs - arbitration (negative – costs are at a lower level); and 3) No correlation between workforce classification and HPRC. In the preceding three areas, only the model on high performance attributes had a high r square and low variance with adjusted r square; both indicators of a parsimonious model. While correlations arose, further research in this area is warranted in developing a more enhanced and publicly accepted comparable metric of performance, costs and HPRC for law enforcement. In addition, certain control variables illustrated a correlation with the dependent variables as follows: 1) Performance - High median household incomes, density, age, survey quality of life, and city; 2) Law Enforcement Costs per Capita - Non-right-to-work state and county; and 3) HPRC - Median household income and county. A rational choice theory was utilized as the lens of framework in assessing an employee’s motivational behavior in a collective and non-collective bargaining work environment that could contribute to differentials in performance.


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VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

December 2013