Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Social Work

First Advisor

Elizabeth M. Z. Farmer

Second Advisor

Traci Wike


The Alliance for Excellent Education (2011) estimates every 26 seconds in America, a student drops out of school. Numerous intervention and prevention approaches have been implemented to reduce the incidents of school dropout. One program, Communities In Schools (CIS), has shown promise in impacting the issue of school dropout by attending to both academic and non-academic factors at play in influencing a student’s risk for dropping out. The primary aim of this secondary data analysis was to develop an increased understanding of CIS services, to explore whether service provision varies systematically in relation to student outcomes and student characteristics, and to gain initial understandings of whether service provision is related to end-of-year outcomes. The volume of services provided was examined in terms of the number of service categories received and the amount of services (in hours) received. Bivariate statistical tests were used to examine the differences in the two service volumes based on student characteristics and prior year outcomes. The findings suggest that the total number of services received and the total number of hours of services received does not significantly vary by student characteristics or prior year outcomes. However, significant differences were found in the number of hours of distinct service categories and prior year outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were employed to examine in what ways services were related to student outcomes. The findings indicate that specific services are associated with better outcomes. Practice and future research implications are discussed.


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Social Work Commons