Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Dentistry



First Advisor

Dr. Steven J. Lindauer D.M.D., MDSc

Second Advisor

Dr. Bhavna Shroff D.D.S., MDSc, M.P.A.

Third Advisor

Dr. Caroline Carrico Ph.D.


Past studies evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic treatment have been done using 2-D images. New 3-D imaging offers an improved, real-life representation of a subject. The purpose of this study was to determine how laypeople perceived differences in lip position (flat versus ideal lip fullness) in 2-D compared to 3-D.

3dMD images of 8 Caucasian subjects were adjusted to an ideal and flat lip position in 3-D and then in 2-D from the profile view. 2 surveys were created with paired ideal and flat images on the screen, either in 2-D or 3-D, and evaluators were asked to choose which image they preferred and by how much.

Evaluators were more likely to be neutral, and were less decisive of their preference in 3-D compared to 2-D. People might be less sensitive to small differences in facial soft tissue and esthetics than previous research in 2-D has led orthodontists to believe.


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