Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Health Related Sciences

First Advisor

John T. Beeston


A quasi-experimental research design was used to determine the relationship between the flow rate and the delivered temperature of prewarmed crystalloid intravenous solutions when using the Thermal Jacket™, an insulation device designed for intravenous fluid bags, as compared to a conventional blood warming apparatus. One control and three experimental groups were used.

Fluids in Group 1 (control group), Group 2, and Group 4 were prewarmed in a microwave oven to 41.45 ± 1.05 ° C. Fluids in Group 3 were left near ambient room temperature and measured at 22.05 ± 0.45 ° C. Fluids in the control group were infused through a standard intravenous pump tubing, 270 em in length, using no temperature maintenance device. Fluids in Group 2 and Group 3 were delivered through a standard intravenous pump tubing connected to a blood warming coil which was immersed in a water bath blood warmer. The distance from the exit point of the blood warmer to the distal end of the infusion line measured 174 em. Fluids in Group 4 were placed in a Thermal Jacket™ and delivered through standard intravenous pump tubing. After a baseline measurement, temperatures were recorded for all groups at two sites at 10 minute intervals over a 60 minute period. One site was the lower portion of the IV solution bag, and the other site was a point 2 em from the distal end of the infusion set. Temperatures were measured at flow rates of 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 ml/hr for each group.

Analysis of variance showed a highly significant group effect on the delivered temperature. A Bonferroni multiple comparisons test indicated no statistically significant difference between the delivered temperatures of Group 3 (room temperature fluid + blood warmer) and Group 4 (prewarmed fluid + Thermal Jacket™). Group 2 (prewarmed fluid + blood warmer) showed a significantly higher delivered temperature (p < .05) than the other groups, and the control group (prewarmed + no temperature maintenance device) showed a significantly lower delivered temperature (12. < .05). Analysis of variance also showed a highly significant flow rate effect on delivered temperature. A Bonferroni multiple comparisons indicated a significant difference (12. < .05) between the flow rates of 100, 250, 500, and 750 ml/hr, with the higher flow rates resulting in higher delivered temperatures. There was no significant difference noted between the delivered temperatures at 750 and 1,000 ml/hr.

The Thermal Jacket™, used with prewarmed intravenous fluids, was as effective as the conventional method of delivering warmed fluids. Also, within the range of flow rates studied, faster flow rates tended to yield a higher delivered temperature.


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