Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Pharmaceutical Sciences

First Advisor

Jürgen Venitz


The purpose of the project was to investigate the impact of IV and PO routes difference for MDZ, a prototypical CYP3A substrate, and two CYP3A inhibitors (CYP3AI) -FLZ and ERY-, on the magnitude and time course of their inhibitory metabolic DDI.

Individual semi-PBPK models for MDZ, FLZ and ERY were developed and validated separately, using pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from clinical/in-vitro studies and published physiological parameters. Subsequently, DDI sub-models between MDZ and CYP3AIs incorporated non-competitive and mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) for FLZ and ERY, respectively, on hepatic and gut wall (GW) CYP3A metabolism of MDZ, using available in-vitro/in-vivo information. Model-simulated MDZ PK profiles were compared with observed data from available clinical PK and DDI studies, by visual predictive check and exposure metrics comparison. DDI magnitude and time course for CYP3AI (IV vs. PO) followed by MDZ (IV vs. PO) at various time points were predicted by the validated semi-PBPK-DDI models. Two hypothetical CYP3A substrates and four CYP3AI (derived from MDZ, FLZ and ERY, with GW metabolism removed, hepatic metabolism reduced, or oral bioavailability (Foral) and/or elimination half-life (t1/2) modified) were also simulated to generalize conclusions.

The final semi-PBPK-DDI models predict well the PK profiles for IV/PO MDZ in absence/presence of IV/PO CYP3AI, with deviations between model-predicted and observed exposure metrics within 30%. Prospective simulations demonstrate that:

1) CYP3A substrates, e.g., MDZ, are consistently more sensitive to metabolic inhibition after PO than after IV administration, due to pre-systemic hepatic and/or GW metabolism. For substrates without GW metabolism and limited hepatic metabolism, only a marginal route difference for substrate administration is observed.

2) For high-Foral CYP3AIs, e.g., FLZ, no inhibitor IV-PO route DDI differences are expected, unless they are given simultaneously with PO MDZ.

3) For low-Foral CYP3AIs, e.g., ERY, greater inhibition is expected after IV than after PO administration for IV MDZ, but is difficult to predict for PO MDZ.

4) In addition to Foral and plasma t1/2 of CYP3AIs, the DDI onset, peak and duration are determined by their oral absorption rate and by the resulting hepatic and/or GW concentration profiles relative to Ki for noncompetitive CYP3AIs, but by CYP3A kinetics (synthesis, degradation rate) for MBI CYP3AIs.


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