Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. James McMillan

Second Advisor

Dr. Sharon Zumbrunn

Third Advisor

Dr. Abigail Conley

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Jennifer Coleman


Students’ perceptions of feedback can impact other writing constructs, such as motivation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and achievement (Ekholm, Zumbrunn, & Conklin, 2015; Magno & Amarles, 2011; Zumbrunn, Marrs, & Mewborn, 2016; Zumbrunn, 2013). The goal of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students’ perceptions of writing feedback. Evidence for validity and reliability were gathered throughout the development of the Student Perceptions of Writing Feedback (PoWF) Scale, a self-report questionnaire that asks students how they perceive feedback they get on their writing from their teachers. Items on the PoWF reflected the extant literature on students’ feedback perceptions. The PoWF was administered to 275 secondary students attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic high school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a four-factor structure of students’ feedback perceptions that accounted for 55 percent of the variance. Given the important role feedback may have in improving student writing, it is important to understand students’ perceptions of writing feedback, which is a relatively new construct. This measurement study was a critical first step toward a better understanding of students’ writing feedback perceptions as well as related theoretical implications.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission