Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Victoria Shivy, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Eric Benotsch, Ph.D.


College students with ADHD, but especially those who consume alcohol, may be at jeopardy for experiencing negative educational and occupational outcomes, problematic substance use, criminal offending, and sexual victimization. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) use is widespread across college campuses and associated with many of these same problematic outcomes. The risk of experiencing these consequences for college students with ADHD may be exacerbated by AmED use given its unique relationship, above and beyond alcohol use, with these variables. This study sought to examine relationships among GPA, lost work performance, hazardous alcohol use, illicit substance use, criminal offending, and sexual victimization in college students with ADHD who use AmED. The sample comprised students (N = 248; 36.3% male, 63.7% female) from the University of Albany’s (UAlbany) and Virginia Commonwealth University’s (VCU) disability support centers, as well as VCU’s SONA psychology subject pool. Hierarchical linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to test six hypotheses. Results showed that AmED use did not predict GPA, lost work performance, or criminal offending. However, AmED use did predict hazardous alcohol use (p < .001), illicit substance use (p < .05), and sexual victimization (p < .05). These findings provide a baseline rate of AmED use in college students with ADHD, and highlight the importance of further research regarding the potential consequences of AmED use in this population.


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Date of Submission