Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Everett L. Worthington


Forty-five participants from Protestant denominations completed surveys designed to investigate the effects of religious beliefs on preferences among four types of Christian counseling. The proponents of the counseling theories were Clyde M. Narramore, Jay E. Adams, Lawrence J. Crabb, and Andre Bustanoby. Participants read a case history of a fictitious client, and four short treatment plans which represented each Christian counselor's approach. Then, they completed questionnaires designed to assess their preferences for the counseling approaches, as well as completing other measures, including a religious fundamentalism scale, the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS), and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). It was found that Crabb was viewed by participants as having an approach which most closely paralled their own religious beliefs. On almost all other measures, Crabb, yoked with either Bustanoby or Narramore, lead participants' preferences. Adams was viewed as relying most on the authority of Scripture, but he was frequently the least preferred. Other findings indicated that for Christians, especially conservative Christians (as determined by the ROS, RVS, and self-ratings), there is a reluctance toward seeking secular psychological help, and a preference for counseling theories which are perceived as being congruent with their own religious beliefs. Implications for research and counseling with Christians are discussed.


Scanned, with permission from the author, from the original print version, which resides in University Archives.


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Date of Submission