Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Physiology and Biophysics

First Advisor

John R. Grider

Second Advisor

Srinivasa M. Karnam

Third Advisor

John W. Bigbee


Diabetes Mellitus has continued to drastically affect the health of the world and many complications can prove fatal. As long as this metabolic disease persist, research discoveries will need to continue to be made so that patient outcomes and healthcare are dramatically enhanced. In recent years, GLP-1 has been the topic of conversation for diabetes research, due to its promising effects in promoting insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bile acids and their receptors (TGR5 & FXR) have shown promise in their actions in the regulation of GLP-1, and thus glucose homeostasis. Here we have shown the detection and increased expression of TGR5 and GLP-1, and decreased expression of FXR in diabetic mouse intestinal mucosa tissues. We have also shown the detection and increased expression of these receptors in STC-1 cells. More importantly we have linked the connection of increased glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) to increased TGR5 activation to increased GLP-1 release, thus leading to increased insulin sensitivity and altered diabetic outcomes.


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