Author ORCID Identifier


Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Gary M. Atkinson


This work presents a new low-temperature fabrication process of metal oxide nanostructures that allows high-aspect ratio zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires and nanotubes to be readily integrated with microelectronic devices for sensor applications. This process relies on a new method of forming a close-packed array of self-assembled high-aspect-ratio nanopores in an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template in a thin (2.5 µm) aluminum film deposited on a silicon and lithium niobate substrate (LiNbO3). This technique is in sharp contrast to traditional free-standing thick film methods and the use of an integrated thin aluminum film greatly enhances the utility of such methods. We have demonstrated the method by integrating ZnO nanowires, TiO2 nanowires, and multiwall TiO2 nanotubes onto the metal gate of a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor), and the delay line of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to form an integrated ChemFET (Chemical Field-Effect Transistor) and a orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW gas sensor. The resulting metal oxide nanostructures of 1-1.7 µm in height and 40-100 nm in diameter offer an increase of up to 220X the surface area over a standard flat metal oxide film for sensing applications.

The metal oxide nanostructures were characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM and Hall measurements to verify stoichiometry, crystal structure and electrical properties. Additionally, the electrical response of ChemFETs and OFC SAW gas sensors with ZnO nanowires, TiO2 nanowires, and multiwall TiO2 nanotubes were measured using 5-200 ppm ammonia as a target gas at room temperature (24ºC) showing high sensitivity and reproducible testing results.


© William Clavijo

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission