Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Everett E. Carpenter


The design and development of nanoparticles is of great interest in the current energy and electronic industry. However, based on the current materials available the production cost can be high with insignificant magnetic and mechanical properties. Specifically, rare-earth magnetic materials composed of neodymium and samarium are known for their high magnetic performance, however, due to the cost of development there is a need to develop a versatile and cost effective material. Alternatively, cobalt carbide nanomaterials have shown to be a promising alternative for rare-earth free magnets as they exhibit comparable properties as hexaferrite magnetic materials. The primary goal of this dissertation focuses on the development of nanoparticles for permeant magnetic, and magnetic refrigeration applications. The first part of this work focuses on the synthesis of cobalt carbide (CoxC, x=2,3) nanoparticles using a novel polyol synthesis method by introducing a small amount of Ru, Cu, or Au as nucleating agent. It was found that the morphology and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized CoxC nanoparticles change as a result of directional growth of nanoparticles using nucleating agents. Needle-like particle morphology ranges from 20-50 nm in width and as long as 1 µm in length were synthesized using Ru as nucleating agent. These particles exhibit magnetization saturation of 33.5 emu/g with a coercivity of 2870 Oe and a maximum energy product 1.92 MGOe (BHmax) observed. Particle morphology is a critical aspect in the development of magnetic nanoparticles as anisotropic particles have shown increased coercivity and magnetic properties. These CoxC nanomaterials have a higher maximum energy product compared to previous work providing further insight into the development of non-rare earth magnetic material.

The second part of this dissertation work focuses on the sol-gel synthesis of perovskite LaCaMnO3 (LCMO) nanomaterials. In this process, various chain lengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added into a solution consisting of La, Ca, and Mn salts. The solution was left for the gelation process, and high temperature sintering to obtain the final product. By varying the polymer chain of the PEG, the size of the as synthesized LaCaMnO3 nanomaterials were altered. The as-synthesized LCMO nanomaterials have shown a maximum change in magnetic entropy (-ΔSM) was found to be 19.3 Jkg-1K-1 at 278 K for a field change of 0-3 T and 8.7 Jkg-1K-1 for a field change of 0-1 T. This is a significant improvement in comparison to current literature of the material suggesting that this is a promising alternative to Gd materials that is prone to oxidation. With additional development, LCMO or related maganites could lead to application in commercial technologies.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission


Available for download on Friday, May 05, 2023