Defense Date

2018

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

First Advisor

Ravi L. Hadimani

Abstract

Neurological disorders require varying types and degrees of treatments depending on the symptoms and underlying causes of the disease. Patients suffering from medication-refractory symptoms often undergo further treatment in the form of brain stimulation, e.g. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). These treatments are popular and have been shown to relieve various symptoms for patients with neurological conditions. However, the underlying effects of the stimulation, and subsequently the causes of symptom-relief, are not very well understood. In particular, TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy which uses time-varying magnetic fields to induce electric fields on the conductive parts of the brain. TMS has been FDA-approved for treatment of major depressive disorder for patients refractory to medication, as well as symptoms of migraine. Studies have shown that TMS has relieved severe depressive symptoms, although researchers believe that it is the deeper regions of the brain which are responsible for symptom relief. Many experts theorize that cortical stimulation such as TMS causes brain signals to propagate from the cortex to these deep brain regions, after which the synapses of the excited neurons are changed in such a way as to cause plasticity. It has also been widely observed that stimulation of the cortex causes signal firing at the deeper regions of the brain. However, the particular mechanisms behind TMS-caused signal propagation are unknown and understudied. Due to the non-invasive nature of TMS, this is an area in which investigation can be of significant benefit to the clinical community. We posit that a deeper understanding of this phenomenon may allow clinicians to explore the use of TMS for treatment of various other neurological symptoms and conditions. This thesis project seeks to investigate the various effects of TMS in the human brain, with respect to brain tissue stimulation as well as the cellular effects at the level of neurons. We present novel models of motor neuron circuitry and fiber tracts that will aid in the development of deep brain stimulation modalities using non-invasive treatment paradigms.

Rights

© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

5-29-2018

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