Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Erdem Topsakal


Incremental usage of mobile devices demand a new generation of wireless networks (5G) to provide faster data rates, more reliable coverage, monitor city infrastructure usage, and increase network capacity. The frequencies proposed for the upcoming 5G network would result in shorter broadcast distances and network dead zones, countered by incorporating transparent antennas into glass high rises. Transparent antennas possess, however a major challenge: low gain. This lower gain can be countered by means of employing antennas in an antenna array, boosting the gain and even giving the array the ability to beam form for the upcoming 5G network. The 5G dead zones can be countered with strategically placed transparent reflectors embedded into the glass surfaces of city high-rises.

This dissertation shows there are significant effects due to the transparent antennas’ carrier concentration and film thickness. Changes in film conductivity and thicknesses results in shifts for filter and antenna resonances. A 4x1 GZO antenna array was constructed to operate at 5.8 GHz, and the results show approximately 10dBi of lower aperture gain between a copper version of the array and the GZO version of the array. However, the 4x1 GZO array shows an approximate 12dBi increase in gain over a single GZO antenna element.

The technology developed in this dissertation has a broader impact other than for smart cities and the upcoming 5G network. Transparent antenna arrays offer sight insensitive military communication systems and eye-worn medical and commercial devices to monitor eye health and other various health signs.


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