Author ORCID Identifier


Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Kevin Sutherland

Second Advisor

Dr. Jason Chow

Third Advisor

Dr. Kristen Granger

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Bryce McLeod


This study examined the reliability and validity of the Teacher Attribution Measure for Early Elementary (TAM-EE), a measure adapted from the Preschool Teaching Attributions (PTA) measure, to assess the challenging behavior attributions of early elementary teachers. Like the PTA, the TAM-EE uses a series of student-specific behavior scenarios as prompts for teachers who then rate statements aligned with dimensions of attribution theory on a 6-point scale. A sample of 41 teachers completed the TAM-EE on 79 students in grades K-3 screened for risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Teachers also completed reports of student behavior, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the student-teacher relationship. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis suggest that the two-factor model (Causal and Responsibility) used for the PTA was best fit. Combined with significant correlations with measures assessing teacher perceptions and practices, this study provides both an initial psychometric evaluation of the TAM-EE and additional support for the validity and reliability of the PTA.


© Shannon L. Nemer

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