Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Eric Benotsch

Second Advisor

Paul Perrin

Third Advisor

Caroline Cobb

Fourth Advisor

Ananda Amstatder

Fifth Advisor

Dace Svikis


Background:Non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) has become a clear threat to public health. Young adults (aged 18 to 25) have a high risk of NMUPO. My prior work on Chinese undergraduates indicates a high prevalence of lifetime NMUPO (49.2%). Health behavior theories propose that outcome expectancies are robust psychosocial determinants of substance use. Literature has identified the influence of outcome expectancies on alcohol and drug use. However, the role of outcome expectancies in NMUPO in China is unknown, and a scarcity of a valid measures for NMUPO outcome expectancies may be a barrier. Our previous research also found an association of cultural orientation with NMUPD in Chinese college students, implying that cultural orientation may affect NMUPD-related perceptions, such as outcome expectancies. The purposes of this study were to (1) conduct initial work to develop and validate an NMUPO outcome expectancies scale (NMUPOES) for Chinese college students; (2) examine the association of cultural orientation with factors identified in NMUPOES. Method: Partial data (n = 202) derived from a bigger online dataset collected from 849 undergraduates (average age = 19.65) at two universities in Beijing and Macau in Jan-April 2017 was used in this study. Participants completed the NMUPOES and reported their past-3-month NMUPO and cultural orientation. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were employed to test the study hypotheses. Results: Findings suggested four subscales in the 50-item NMUPOES (i.e., social enhancement and tension reduction, academic enhancement, physiological discomfort, and guilt and dependence) and two higher-order factors (i.e., positive expectancies and negative expectancies). All subscales were positively correlated and had good internal consistency. The negative expectancies scale was negatively associated with past-3-month NMUPO. No significant association was found between cultural orientation and the two expectancy factors. Conclusion:NMUPOES is a psychometrically appropriate measure of NMUPO expectancies for Chinese college students. Future research may validate the NMUPOES using a large sample size in both clinical and non-clinical populations in China. An intervention program tailored to outcome expectancies may be beneficial to reduce the risk of NMUPO in Chinese college students.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission