Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Charol Shakeshaft

Second Advisor

Dr. James McMillian

Third Advisor

Dr. Joshua Cole

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Sunny Shin


Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have a profound effect on an individual’s physical and mental health. The World Health Organization has recently updated the ACE questionnaire so it could be used with international populations. The Adverse Childhood Experiences-International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ), has not been translated to Spanish or used with Latine immigrants.

This study translated the ACE-IQ into Spanish, evaluated the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, and collected data on 184 four adult English Language Learners in Chesterfield County, VA.

There is evidence of internal consistency for the ACE-IQ as a whole (α = .908) and within subscales. Three factors were identified by a confirmatory factor analysis for the ACE-IQ (violence inside the home, violence outside the home, childhood maltreatment). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through the use of the BRFSS (r2 = .862). Ninety-one percent of participants reported one or more adverse childhood experiences and 50.5% of participants reported experiencing four or more ACEs using the binary method of scoring. Higher ACE scores were associated with an increase in chronic health conditions and higher scores on mental health measures. The only demographic factor to demonstrate statistical significance was population an individual immigrated from (rural versus urban). My findings suggest that the ACE-IQ is appropriate for use with Latine immigrants.


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