Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Joan A. Rhodes

Second Advisor

Hillary Parkhouse

Third Advisor

Michael Broda

Fourth Advisor

Kathryn Murphy-Judy


The number of English learners in the United States continues to increase and these students’ literacy scores are dramatically lower than their native English-speaking peers. White, female teachers dominate the teaching workforce, creating a cultural mismatch between teachers and students. Culturally relevant education can benefit student outcomes and incorporating multicultural literature is one way to do so. This non-experimental quantitative study examined the relationships between teachers’ multicultural characteristics, teachers’ use of multicultural literature, classroom level factors, and teacher demographics. A total of 35 teachers participated in an online survey and completed a book log, indicating texts used in their instruction. Data were analyzed to answer each of the research questions. Findings revealed significant relationships between experiences of diversity and country of birth and languages spoken, teachers’ efficacy and the number of years taught, multicultural literature use and grade level, teachers’ recent experience with diversity and teachers’ efficacy, teachers’ efficacy and their attitude of diversity, and teachers’ use of multicultural literature and their attitude of diversity. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.


© Virginia R. Massaro

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Date of Submission