Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Christine L. Bae

Second Advisor

Michael Broda

Third Advisor

Alison Koenka

Fourth Advisor

Amy Hutton


Drawing from the opportunity-propensity (O-P) framework of student achievement by using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2015 dataset, this study examined the relationships among 1) opportunity-to-learn (OTL) factors using proximal indicators that represent a comprehensive set of science-specific learning opportunities, 2) student motivation (propensity factor) that is theoretically aligned to key constructs in motivation theories (Expectancy-value Theory and Self-determination Theory), and 3) key student (gender, socioeconomic status, and home language) and teacher (# years teaching, education level) antecedent factors using structural equation modeling to understand person and context-factors that predict students’ science achievement. Results showed that student propensity factors, especially self-concept in science, and family socioeconomic status were the two strongest and positive predictors of student science achievement. However, the link between OTL and science achievement was mixed. Additionally, OTL had less predictive power than propensities on science achievement, but the relationship between OTL and propensities were strong. Implications for the examination on the O-P model and science teaching practices were discussed.


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Available for download on Saturday, October 07, 2220