Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Joan A. Rhodes

Second Advisor

Dr. Sharon Zumbrunn

Third Advisor

Dr. William Muth

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Matthew Edinger


This study compared elementary endorsed and nonendorsed teachers of gifted students in science, mathematics, and STEM self-efficacy as well as self-reported use of STEM instructional strategies in central Virginia. The survey, adapted from the T-STEM survey by the Friday Institute at NC State University, focused on self-efficacy and use of STEM instructional strategies. ANOVAs, univariate linear analyses, were conducted on 39 responses to compare teachers’ self-efficacy and use of STEM instructional strategies. ANCOVA and moderated regressions were used to compare the groups of teachers while controlling for the variables of grade level, years of experience, and recent STEM training. Multiple regressions were run for self-efficacy levels using predictors of endorsement status, grade level, years of experience, and recent STEM training. There were no significant results when analyzing ANCOVAs and moderated regression analyses for science self-efficacy and STEM self-efficacy. For science self-efficacy, significant predictors included kindergarten, fourth grade, and STEM training. For STEM self-efficacy, significant predictors included second grade and years of teaching. Mathematics self-efficacy was statistically significant when controlling for years of teaching and grade level based on ANCOVAs. Significant predictors were fourth grade, years of teaching, and endorsement status. STEM instructional strategies were statistically significant when controlling for STEM training. Nonendorsed teachers had more strategy use. Significant predictors were second and third grades, years of teaching, and STEM training. Similar studies should be held due to limitations of survey self-report, small sample size, and limited generalization capability. Additional research should be conducted across varying grade levels and populations.


© Lianna Lynn Moss-Everhart

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission