Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Fine Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Keith Byron Kirk


In order to decompress this thesis, we have to acknowledge there are some vernacular changes that have occurred during the last 200 years. Also, we must acknowledge that during the time when Charles was born in 1940, the standard fare for diagnosing Intellectual Disability was fairly blanket. In other words, there weren’t a lot of variations on the theme or terminology to address those individuals. In the 1800’s, the moniker of “idiot” was the prominent associative word used to describe everyone in the group of people that had “other” behaviors that were different from “normal” people. “Idiots” were considered any individuals who could not be taught or trained to be normative. In 1852 according to the Council on Developmental Disabilities, the prevailing social structure available to parents of idiots was to insert them into a school of like-minded people where they could be trained and rehabilitated. “Even though some people believed that the early training schools were successful, education as a goal was sacrificed for the greater concern of housing a quickly growing number of persons of all ages


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission


Available for download on Monday, March 12, 2221