Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Media, Art, and Text

First Advisor

Mariam Alkazemi

Second Advisor

Marcus Messner

Third Advisor

Richard Fine

Fourth Advisor

Aloni Hill


Social media sites have become essential for organizations and celebrities, allowing them to build relationships and interact with fans. Previous research found openness and perceived interactivity to improve social media engagement. The current study used the concepts of parasocial interactions and relationships to enhance the current knowledge of how celebrities influence their followers through Twitter. The study looked at perceived openness, perceived interactivity, and media engagement in relation to parasocial interaction and relationships using the Qualtrics survey response from 905 participants on Fayez Al-Malki’s Twitter page. The results indicated that both celebrities' and followers' posts employed openness and perceived interactivity, which lead to user's Twitter engagement. Also, parasocial interaction and parasocial relationships significantly affected social media engagement. The results further revealed that parasocial interactions was a significant mediator of perceived interactivity and perceived openness, while parasocial relationship mediated perceived openness of other users’ posts and perceived interactivity of users’ posts. The study recommends organizations and celebrities to build strong relationships with their followers through social media platforms.


© Mohammed. A Alasmari

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission


Available for download on Monday, May 25, 2026