Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Dentistry



First Advisor

Carol Caudill, D.D.S

Second Advisor

Caroline K. Carrico, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Carlos S. Smith, D.D.S., M.Div


Use of Passive Immobilization During Oral Conscious Sedation: Parental Perceptions and Utilization by Pediatric Dentists in The United States, Levine J, Caudill, C (Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, Richmond, VA)

Research supported by the Alexander Fellowship

Purpose: To assess change in parental attitudes of passive immobilization after viewing an informational video and evaluate how pediatric dentists are currently using passive immobilization during oral conscious sedations (OCS).

Methods: A survey consisting of six statements on a 5-point Likert scale was completed by parents at their child’s OCS consultation appointment before and after viewing an educational video demonstrating benefits of passive immobilization during OCS. The AAPD national survey amongst pediatric dentists had similar statements to the parent survey in addition to questions about current use and methods used to present passive stabilization to parents.

Results: A total of 76 parents participated. After the video, 97% understood the purpose of passive stabilization and 95% agreed that it made treatment safer for their child. Overall, 92% felt comfortable using the Papoose board for behavior guidance. Although baseline approval was high, there were significant improvements in parents’ agreement with understanding the purpose (P=.002), allowing best treatment (P=.011), feeling comfortable (P=0.016), and making treatment safer (P=0.016). A total of 757 responses were collected from pediatric dentists. Among those who performed oral sedations, 70% used passive stabilization boards and indicated patient safety (96%), provider safety (80%), and patient behavior guidance (76%) as the most common indications. Most providers reported using verbal explanation regarding passive immobilization to the parents (94%).

Conclusion: The majority of pediatric dental providers are using a form of protective stabilization during their oral sedations. Most parents are accepting of protective stabilization during oral sedation and additional acceptance can be gained by using an audio-visual aid for explanation as part of the informed consent process.


© Jennifer Levine, DDS, MS

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