Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Zvi Schwartz, DMD, PhD

Second Advisor

Barbara D. Boyan, PhD

Third Advisor

Henry J. Donahue, PhD

Fourth Advisor

Ibrahim Guven, PhD

Fifth Advisor

Charles P. Cartin, PhD

Sixth Advisor

Jaime A. Camelio, PhD


Orthopaedic and dental implant retention rates decrease in patients with one or a combination of risk factors such as age, diabetes or smoking status, or trauma resulting in reduced bone density. Therefore, there is a growing clinical need to create implants with material properties that promote accelerated osseointegration and reduced recovery time in compromised bone. This dissertation addresses this clinical need by creating and testing the effectiveness of technologies that provide increased predictability and longevity without the use of expensive pharmacologic agents like bisphosphonates or recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) used in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Our work has shown that machined titanium (Ti) and Ti-based alloy surfaces possessing macro-/micro-/nano-scale biomimetic surface topographies are able to direct osteoblast differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and improve osseointegration in vivo. Furthermore, we’ve shown that additively manufactured (AM) constructs designed with biomimetic 3D macroscale porosity and similar surface roughness increase osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. We build on these results in this dissertation by generating novel implant wettability inducing techniques to further enhance osteogenesis, modify the interior of 3D printed implant surfaces to possess homogenous nanoporous topography using a gas-to-solid chemical modification process, and further evaluate the mechanisms in which cell respond to complex implant surfaces and signal away from the implant surface both in vitro and in vivo. AM makes it possible to design patient-specific implants with biomimetic architectures, but it is not known how manufacturing parameters of the necessary complex geometries affect surface properties and implant rigidity. Therefore, we also evaluated alterations in build parameters on surface processing techniques and cellular response in vitro. Collectively, these data show promising new methods to increase bone formation and ingrowth using enhanced 3D AM constructs possessing improved build parameters and post-processing methods to create implants with increased stability and long-term predictability.


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Available for download on Friday, July 30, 2027

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