Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Jo Lynne W. Robins, PhD, RN, ANP-BC, AHN-C, FAANP

Second Advisor

Jeanne Salyer, PhD, RN

Third Advisor

Debra J. Barksdale, PhD, FNP-BC, CNE, FAANP, ANEF, FAAN

Fourth Advisor

Rebecca Etz, PhD


Heart failure (HF) is a chronic, progressive, debilitating illness that disproportionately affects Black individuals, often leading to poor quality of life (QOL). Various sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics are related to QOL in patients with HF. Because most studies do not include representative Black samples or report findings from racial subgroup analyses, these relationships and any existing racial differences are not well understood. The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study was to explore the relationships among sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics and QOL in patients with HF and to determine if there were racial differences between Black and White individuals. Mean participant age was 56.29 (SD = 12.42). SPSS 27.0 was the program used to conduct secondary data analysis. Among the sociodemographic characteristics, racial differences were apparent in age, gender, and marital status. Racial differences in ejection fraction, New York Heart Association Classification, comorbidities, and functional status emerged as clinical characteristics. Race was not significantly associated with QOL. Physical functioning and anxiety were significant predictors of QOL in the initial analysis. However, in the full model, older age and greater depression remained significant, suggesting they were the strongest predictors of QOL. Patients with HF should undergo regular screening for depression and anxiety. Future researchers should explore sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics in larger samples; consider the timing and measurement approaches for depression, anxiety, and QOL; and further explore racial differences.


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