Author ORCID Identifier

Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Abigail Conley

Second Advisor

Dr. Donna Dockery

Third Advisor

Dr. Naomi Wheeler

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Bambacus


This exploratory, nonexperimental study aimed to investigate the relationships among diverse undergraduate and graduate students’ perceived campus climate, flourishing, and university belonging on bystander intentions and bystander behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study’s theoretical framework combined the Theory of Planned Behavior and feminist theory, and examined intersectionality through an Identity Risk Index. Data used in the current study were originally collected as part of an institutional Healthy Minds Survey, on health behaviors of college students; responses from n = 171 of the randomly selected participants were used in the current study’s analyses. The majority of participants indicated at least two marginalized social identities and intervened as a bystander at least once in the last year. The results of two MANOVAS indicated significant differences among students with marginalized social identities, and nonsignificant differences by academic level, for flourishing, university belonging, campus climate, and bystander intention. The results of a multilinear regression with a covariate indicated that flourishing, university, and campus climate predict bystander intention more accurately when accounting for students’ marginalized identities. Lastly, a Poisson regression confirmed that bystander intention predicted bystander intervention for university students. Overall, the findings suggest that as university leaders create initiatives and policies aimed to enhance students’ well-being post-COVID-19 pandemic, they should consider systemic implications these decisions may have on students with diverse identities. Inclusive campus climates as well as intentional opportunities to foster university belonging and flourishing, can increase students' intentions to intervene in risky situations, and promote a healthier campus community.


© Amelia Liadis

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission