Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Dr. Gary R. Hartwell D.D.S.


K3 ENDO, PRO TAPER, AND PRO FILE SYSTEMS: BREAKAGE AND DISTORTION IN SEVERELY CURVED ROOTS OF MOLARS.By Matthew T. Ankrum, D.D.S.A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science at Virginia Commonwealth University.Virginia Commonwealth University, 2003Major Director: Gary R. Hartwell, D.D.S., M.S.Chairman and Professor, Department of EndodonticsIt was the aim of this study to investigate the incidence of file breakage and distortion when the Pro Taper, K3 Endo and ProFile systems were used to instrument canals in the severely curved roots of extracted molars.Forty-five roots of extracted mandibular and maxillary molars with curvatures between 40 and 75 degrees were chosen for use in this study. The roots in Group One were instrumented with the Pro File (PF) system and served as the control group. Roots in Group Two were instrumented with the Pro Taper (PT) system and those in Group Three were instrumented with the K3 Endo (K3) system. The three systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions.The proportion of files distorted was 15.3% for the PF group, 2.4% for the PT group, and 8.3% for the K3 group. There was a statistically significant difference between the PF and PT groups (p = .0079). The percentage of broken files was 1.7% for the PF group, 6.0% for the PT group and 2.1% for the K3 group. No statistically significant differences were found between these three groups (p = .4243). The results of this study showed that these three rotary tapered systems were not significantly different with regard to breakage. There were significantly more distorted files in the PF group when compared to the PT group, with regard to distortion there was no significant difference between the PT and K3 and the PF and K3 groups.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

June 2008