Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Dr Frederick Liewehr


The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the fill density of MTA produced by hand condensation and hand condensation with indirect ultrasonic activation. Thirty acrylic block with 30 degree curved canals (group C) and 30 with straight canals (group S) were instrumented to a final apical size of 45 of 0.06 taper crown-down technique. After irrigating with water and drying with paper points, each block was weighed to the nearest 0.0001g with a digital electronic balance. In half of the specimens, chosen at random, the canal first filled with MTA using the hand condensation method (H) then weighed. The MTA was removed. The canal was rinsed, dried, and refilled using hand condensation with indirect ultrasonic activation (US). In the other half of the specimens, the procedure was carried out identically but in reverse order. The blocks were weighed again after cleaning the MTA from the canal as well as after refilling the canal using indirect ultrasonic condensation. Data comparing the weight of MTA between the two placement methods and the two canal configurations were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. There was a statistically significant increase in weight of MTA produced by ultrasonic activation than by hand condensation in groups C (p<.0001) and S (p<.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference when comparing the straight canal versus the 30-degree curved canal (p = .08). In group C, ultrasonic condensation resulted in a 10.07% increase in the weight of MTA over hand condensation alone. Similarly in group S, there was a 9.1% increase in the weight of MTA over hand condensation. In conclusion, hand condensation with indirect ultrasonic activation resulted in an MTA fill that was denser than that accomplished by hand condensation alone.


© The Author

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission

June 2008